The multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization “mFISH” study was conducted at NASA’s Johnson Space Center to determine whether TVEMF technology caused chromosomal damage to stem cells expanded using the NASA technology.
The mFISH study found that there was no chromosomal damage or change in the expanded adult stem cells 90 days after their expansion.
The presence of chromosomal damage or change could cause a wide array of problems such as tumor formation.
The study verified that stem cells grown in the NASA bioreactor are safer for potential therapies than current methods that use genetic manipulation.
The “nude mouse” study was performed by the independent firm, Charles Rivers Laboratories Inc. using athymic mice. The lack of a thymus leaves the mice without the ability to mount most types of immune responses.
The purpose of the study was to determine whether a cell line was tumorigenic when injected by the subcutaneous route into athymic nude mice.
TVEMF-expanded stem cells were injected into athymic nude mice. It was determined that the TVEMF-expanded stem cells caused no tumors in the mice within 85 days of the injection of the TVEMF-expanded stem cells.
The study validated that expanded stem cells could be transplanted without harmful effects that have been demonstrated with genetic modification.
This is work conducted at Texas A&M University College of Veterinary Medicine on New Zealand White Rabbits using TVEMF.
An osteotomy was performed on the ulna (forearm) leaving a significant gap that would not heal under normal conditions.
The control group used “sham” TVEMF over the area of the osteotomy and the treatment group used TVEMF stimulation.
The study was not conducted until full healing had occurred, but there were obvious differences between the control group and the treatment group.
The study was actually discontinued because researchers could easily distinguish the difference between the control group and treatment group animals. The treatment group animals were mobile, while the control group animals were immobile.
Photo of the incision: Notice the significant gap in the bone
Physiological and Molecular Genetic Effects of Time-Varying Electromagnetic Fields on Human Neuronal Cells
Thomas J. Goodwin, PH.D., Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas
The present investigation details the development of model systems for growing two- and three dimensional human neural progenitor (NHNP) stem cells within a culture medium facilitated by a time-varying electromagnetic field (TVEMF), i.e. PEMF.
The cells and culture medium are contained within a two- or three-dimensional culture vessel, and the electromagnetic field is emitted from an electrode or coil. These studies further provide methods to promote neural tissue regeneration by means of culturing the neural cells in either configuration. Grown in two dimensions, neuronal cells extended longitudinally, forming tissue strands extending axially along and within electrodes comprising electrically conductive channels or guides through which a time-varying electrical current was conducted.
In the three-dimensional aspect, exposure to TVEMF resulted in the development of three-dimensional aggregates, which emulated organized neural tissues.
In both experimental configurations, the proliferation rate of the TVEMF cells was 2.5 to 4.0 times the rate of the non-waveform cells. Each of the experimental setups resulted in similar molecular genetic changes regarding the growth potential of the tissues as measured by gene chip analyses, which measured more than 10,000 human genes simultaneously.
This study clearly shows the ability to use TVEMF to control the proliferative rate, directional attitude, and molecular genetic expression of normal human neural progenitor cells. The procedure is applicable to, but not limited to, the control of NHNP cells in both two-dimensional and three-dimensional culture.
The genetic responses both up-regulated and down-regulated genes which were maturation- and growth-regulatory in nature. These genes are also primarily involved in the embryogenic process.
Therefore it is reasonable to conclude that control over the embryogenic development process may be achieved via the presently demonstrated methodology. Specific genes such as human germline oligomeric matrix protein, prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase 2, early growth response protein 1, and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 precursor are highly up-regulated. Keratin Type II cytoskelatal 7, mytotic kinesin like protein 1, transcription factor 6 like 1, mytotic feedback 27 control protein, and cellular retinoic acid binding protein are down-regulated. Each of these two sets is only an example from the approximately 320 genes changes expressed as a consequence of exposure to TVEMF.
There is significant precedent in the literature for the results reported above. Kepler et al. (1990) reported the effects of the neurons with oscillatory properties on the composite of neural networks. This work illustrates the likelihood that a pulse width modulated system might bring on specific responses in neural tissues. As previously discussed, Valentini et al. (1993) demonstrated the ability to enhance the outgrowth of neural fibers on materials that possess a weak electric charge. This would indicate that intense electric fields are not necessarily an essential component of this process, and that a weak and persistent stimulus might yield a measurable effect.
Additional evidence of the effects of magnetic fields exists in the work of Sandyk et al. (1992a). This communication details dramatic improvement of a patient with progressive degenerative multiple sclerosis. Briefly, the patient showed considerable improvement when subjected to treatment at a frequency of 2-7 Hz and an intensity of the magnetic field of 7.5 pico Tesla. These parameters marginally parallel those of this report. In a similar fashion, Sandyk et al. (1992b) reported significant improvement in patients treated with the same field strength and intensity. The ability to suppress or stimulate the growth of non-excitable cells has been reported in mouse lymphoma cells by Lyte et al. (1991). A narrow range of electric field was found to be effective at one end to stimulate and at the other to inhibit the growth of these cells. These data might suggest cellular receptors in all cells. To sustain this notion, Brüstle et al. (1996) reported the potential to use neural progenitors for recapitulation of neural tissues. As would be expected, this would require genetic control at the embryonic level. We believe this study indicates our ability to trigger these parametric events.
As is clearly demonstrated in the human body, the bioelectric, biochemical process of electrical nerve stimulation is a documented reality. The present investigation demonstrates that a similar phenomenon can be potentiated in a synthetic atmosphere, i.e., two-dimensionally or in rotating wall cell culture vessels.
One may use this electrical potentiation for a number of purposes, including developing tissues for transplantation, repairing traumatized tissues, and moderating some neurodegenerative diseases and perhaps controlling the degeneration of tissue as might be effected in a bioelectric stasis field.